British Civilization: An Introduction (1998) by John Oakland PDF

By John Oakland

ISBN-10: 0203361598

ISBN-13: 9780203361597

ISBN-10: 0203378369

ISBN-13: 9780203378366

ISBN-10: 0203447107

ISBN-13: 9780203447109

ISBN-10: 0415165695

ISBN-13: 9780415165693

British Civilization presents a finished creation to modern Britain, together with primary and native govt, the economic climate and undefined, the legislation, media, arts, schooling and faith. This fourth variation is totally revised and up to date to incorporate sections on British attitudes, the 1997 election and New hard work.

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Extra info for British Civilization: An Introduction (1998)

Example text

Since 1921, Northern Ireland has had a 303-mile (488-km) border in the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. It has a rocky northern coastline, a south-central fertile plain and mountainous areas in the west, northeast and south-east. The south-eastern Mourne Mountains include the highest peak, Slieve Donard, which is 2,796 feet (853 m) high. Lough Neagh (147 sq. miles, 381 sq. ) is Britain’s largest freshwater lake and lies at the centre of the country. 20 THE COUNTRY Most of the large towns, like the capital Belfast, are situated in valleys that lead from the Lough.

Natural forces have also affected the coastlines as the seas have moved backwards and forwards over time. 1 The British Isles THE COUNTRY coastal area have either sunk under the sea or risen above it. These processes continue today, particularly on the English east and south coasts. The sea’s retreat has created chalk and lime-stone uplands, and sand beaches along many coasts, while erosion has resulted in the loss of land in some places. Britain was originally part of the European mainland, but the melting of the glaciers in the last Ice Age caused the sea level to rise.

Awareness of these issues coincided with the rise of the Green movement in the 1980s and the adoption of ‘green’ policies by all political parties. Governments have 38 THE COUNTRY introduced Environmental Protection Acts and other measures to safeguard the environment, reduce pollution levels and penalize polluters. European Union legislation also makes very stringent demands. Critics argue, however, that government action is insufficient and often ineffective. Controls and protection are not strict enough; polluters can evade regulations or suffer only minor fines; insufficient pressure is put on companies to modernize their facilities; tension exists between local and central government in environmental matters; and there is a conflict between the cost of protection and the government’s privatization policies (such as water, coal and electricity).

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British Civilization: An Introduction (1998) by John Oakland


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