By Salvatore J. Salamone
Well-liked specialists clarify the pharmacology and metabolism of benzodiazepines (LDB) and g-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and supply strong and powerful methodologies that might allow larger detection of those medicinal drugs in quite a few physique fluids, in addition to in hair. The suggestions comprise hugely delicate immunoassay detection of LDBs, the detection of Rohypnol® and different LDBs by means of mass spectrometry, and the ultrasensitive detection of GHB. cutting-edge and hugely sensible, Benzodiazepines and GHB: Detection and Pharmacology bargains toxicologists, forensic scientists, and scientific chemists modern day most popular tools for detecting those largely abused medications which are occasionally came across linked to felony acts.
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Extra resources for Benzodiazepines and GHB: Detection and Pharmacology (Forensic Science and Medicine)
1997) The online screening technique for urinary benzodiazepines: comparison with EMIT, FPIA, and GC-MS. J. Analyt. Toxicol. 21, 554–557. 15. Wu, A. H. , Wong, S. , Johnson, K. , et al. (1993) Evaluation of the Triage system for emergency drugs-of-abuse testing in urine. J. Analyt. Toxicol. 17, 241–245. 16. Meatherall, R. and Fraser, A. SOFT (1997) Poster #35 Enhanced sensitivity for the CEDIA dau benzodiazepine screening assay. Salt Lake City, UT. 17. Schwenzer, K. , Salamone, S. , Cannon, R.
90 90 95 100 100 100 20 20 20 13 13 13 91 73 82 91 100 73 11 11 11 11 8 11 100 92 97 95 97 95 39 39 39 39 35 39 100 85 100 100 100 100 13 13 13 13 6 13 Immunoassay of Benzodiazepines Table 4 Comparison of Screening Methods for the Detection of Benzodiazepines aWith enzyme hydrolysis. Applied with 100-ng/mL cutoff. All samples contained benzodiazepines or metabolites according to GC-MS. From ref. 14. 27 28 St. Claire and Salamone 5. 1. Manual β-Glucuronidase Treatment The following procedure describes the manual glucuronidase treatment of a urine sample for the detection of benzodiazepines.
The urine-based Cassette COBAS INTEGRA Serum Benzodiazepine assay (SBENZ) from Roche Diagnostics is a new fluorescence polarization immunoassay using a nordiazepam calibrator with a 7 ng/mL LOD with a reported standard curve stability of 16 wk. Using a 7 ng/mL cutoff level, the sensitivity of the assay is high enough not to require enzyme hydrolysis. Sensitivity was reported to be equal to GC/MS (100%); specificity is reported as 71% vs GC/MS (17). This assay was also shown to be as sensitive as GC/MS in detecting single doses of flunitrazepam (24).
Benzodiazepines and GHB: Detection and Pharmacology (Forensic Science and Medicine) by Salvatore J. Salamone