A. Shen, Nikolai Konstantinovich Vereshchagin's Basic Set Theory PDF

By A. Shen, Nikolai Konstantinovich Vereshchagin

ISBN-10: 0821827316

ISBN-13: 9780821827314

The most notions of set idea (cardinals, ordinals, transfinite induction) are primary to all mathematicians, not just to those that specialise in mathematical good judgment or set-theoretic topology. simple set conception is usually given a short evaluate in classes on research, algebra, or topology, although it is satisfactorily vital, attention-grabbing, and easy to benefit its personal leisurely remedy.

This publication offers simply that: a leisurely exposition for a diverse viewers. it really is appropriate for a huge diversity of readers, from undergraduate scholars to expert mathematicians who are looking to eventually discover what transfinite induction is and why it truly is regularly changed through Zorn's Lemma.

The textual content introduces all major matters of "naive" (nonaxiomatic) set idea: features, cardinalities, ordered and well-ordered units, transfinite induction and its functions, ordinals, and operations on ordinals. incorporated are discussions and proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein Theorem, Cantor's diagonal approach, Zorn's Lemma, Zermelo's Theorem, and Hamel bases. With over one hundred fifty difficulties, the publication is a whole and obtainable advent to the topic.

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0, 1}. What is 2N ? According to our definition, this is a set of all functions f : N → {0, 1}. These functions are infinite sequences of zeros and ones (a function is a sequence f (0)f (1)f (2) . . ). There exists a natural one-to-one correspondence between 2X and P (X) (we 8. Operations on cardinals 37 have seen it for the special case X = N, but the same construction works for any X). Standard properties of addition and multiplication (commutative, associative and distributive laws) are true for the operations on cardinals: a + b = b + a; a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c; a × b = b × a; a × (b × c) = (a × b) × c; (a + b) × c = (a × c) + (b × c).

Let ϕ be a one-to-one correspondence between X and P (X) (and ϕ(x) is a set that corresponds to x ∈ X). Consider the set Z of all elements x ∈ X that do not belong to the corresponding subset ϕ(x): Z = {x ∈ X | x ∈ / ϕ(x)}. , that Z = ϕ(z) for any z ∈ X. Indeed, assume that Z = ϕ(z) for some z. Then z∈Z⇔z∈ / ϕ(z) ⇔ z ∈ /Z (according to the definition of Z; recall that ϕ(z) = Z). This contradiction shows that the set Z does not correspond to any element z and ϕ is not a one-to-one correspondence.

Isomorphisms Two partially ordered sets are called isomorphic if there exists an isomorphism, that is, a one-to-one correspondence between them respecting the order. ) Let us say it again: a bijection f : A → B is an isomor- 48 2. Ordered Sets phism of posets A and B if a1 ≤ a2 ⇔ f (a1 ) ≤ f (a2 ) for any elements a1 , a2 ∈ A (the sign “≤” on the left means the ordering in the set A, and that on the right, in the set B). It is clear that the isomorphism relation is reflexive (any poset is isomorphic to itself), symmetric (if X is isomorphic to Y , then Y is isomorphic to X) and transitive (two sets isomorphic to the third one are isomorphic).

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Basic Set Theory by A. Shen, Nikolai Konstantinovich Vereshchagin


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