By V.A. Lefebvre
In this e-book moral structures are defined within the language of arithmetic. typically arithmetic is assumed to be a technological know-how of volume. certainly, manipulation of amounts constitutes a lot of arithmetic. common utilized arithmetic offers with reckoning and size, the place concrete amounts are gadgets of recognition, reminiscent of counting sheep or weighing corno however the operations on those amounts are played with assistance from symbols, from which concrete referents were 'abstracted out': three + five = eight whether the symbols stand for numbers of sheep or a whole bunch corno therefore, the 1st precept that shows the facility of arithmetic is abstraction. it truly is one ofthe 3 pillars on which the edifice of arithmetic rests. one other pillar is precision. as a rule, guy communicates by way of phrases. W ords serve communique to the level that they discuss with issues, occasions, states of affairs, emotions of the speaker, and so forth. those are the meanings attributed to phrases. communique is profitable to the level that the meanings coded upon phrases by way of the speaker correspond to the meanings decoded via the hearer. As is weH recognized, the measure ofthis correspondence varies significantly in several contexts of discourse and with the again grounds or attitudes of the audio system and hearers. arithmetic is a language within which the meanings ofthe symbols (the 'words' ofthis language) are totally exact. This precision is completed through abstraction. summary phrases are outlined by means of their family to different phrases and by means of not anything else.
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Extra info for Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and Soviet Ethical Systems
The frequency of appearance of 1 in the output of the situation we will call the ethical status of the situation. The statuses of individuals and of the A's input I L I a8 + b r A's output + ~ ~ bb+ä 1- I B's input B's output output of the situation Fig. 5. A Structure of a situation represented as an automaton. 4 An example of connection between individuals' reactions to certain environmental demands and corresponding assessment of situation. a o 1 o b A B A+B 1 o o o o o l-p o o l-p 1 P o l-p + p (a) l-p o + 1 P p (b) Fig.
Ob ai . b aaoJ 0 Oneselfand partner Partner aGa'bob aß • b 4 0 2 2 4 4 32 CHAPTER VI where IBI is the module of one's image of one's adversary. Therefore, the higher the module of one's image of oneself, the lower the feeling of guilt; the better one's image of the situation, the less the suffering; and the higher one's image of one's adversary, the less the condemnation. Let us now see how doubts of the correctness of one's images of oneself are connected with feeling guilty. Images of oneself have two tiers, since the entire structures of individuals have three tiers (for the majority of real situations the interpretation using three tiers is sufficient).
8) a"+b ii (9) aa+b + bb+a A and B are in conflict. Both ofthem have incorrect images of each other. A and B are in conflict. Each of them has correct images of A and Band of their relationships. A and B are in conflict. Each of them reflects this fact correctly. A has correct images ofhimself and of B. B has incorrect images of both hirnself and A. A and B are in conflict. A has a correct image of conflict, but B believes they are in union. A and B are in conflict. Both of them reflect this fact correctly, and hoth have incorrect images of each other and of themselves.
Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and Soviet Ethical Systems by V.A. Lefebvre