By Lois N. Magner
Stressing significant topics within the heritage of medication, this moment variation explores the occasions, methodologies, and theories that formed clinical practices in a long time earlier and in glossy medical perform. It highlights practices of civilizations around the globe and learn of pioneering scientists and physicians who contributed to our present figuring out of well-being and illness. New sections hide preventive and replacement medication, scientific schooling for girls, miasma and contagion theories, the specter of epidemic ailment, altering styles of morbidity and mortality, public future health and sanitary reforms, the excessive fee of therapy, ailments of affluence and getting older, and the emergence of latest illnesses.
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Extra info for A History of Medicine, Second Edition
Formal hieroglyphs, ‘‘the words of the gods,’’ were not only a way of writing, but also a form of artistic expression. Egyptian scribes developed a simpliﬁed script known as demotic, but by the ﬁfth century, other forms of writing were adopted and the ancient writings became indecipherable. The development of the ﬁrst true writing system has generally been credited to ancient Sumer, but in the 1990s, archaeologists discovered pictures and symbols inscribed on a limestone cliff in Egypt that might challenge that chronology.
T. (1976). Paleopathological Diagnosis and Interpretation: Bone Diseases in Ancient Human Populations. Springﬁeld, IL: Thomas. Ubelaker, D. H. (1999). Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation, 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Taraxacum. Waldron, T. (1994). Counting the Dead: The Epidemiology of Skeletal Populations. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 2 Ì Medicine in Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia and Egypt INTRODUCTION The Greeks thought it easy to deﬁne ‘‘civilization’’: it referred to the qualities of citizens—free men living in cities.
Counting the Dead: The Epidemiology of Skeletal Populations. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 2 Ì Medicine in Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia and Egypt INTRODUCTION The Greeks thought it easy to deﬁne ‘‘civilization’’: it referred to the qualities of citizens—free men living in cities. Today the concept is regarded as more complex, subtle, and problematic. The term ‘‘culture’’ is used to encompass all the ways of life and customary behaviors invented by human beings. Civilization is, therefore, a particular kind of culture, characterized by increasing complexity in social, economic, and political organization, a settled life, a food supply in excess of subsistence levels, occupational specialization, writing and reckoning, and innovations in the arts and sciences—all maintained by a large number of people over a signiﬁcant period of time.
A History of Medicine, Second Edition by Lois N. Magner