By Kaare Christian
Modula-2 is a straightforward but robust programming language that's compatible for a large choice of purposes. it truly is in response to Pascal, a winning programming language that was once brought in 1970 by means of Niklaus Wirth. in the course of the 1970's Pascal grew to become the main commonly taught programming language and it won reputation in technological know-how and undefined. In 1980 Dr. Wirth published the Modula-2 application ming language. Modula-2 is an evolution of Pascal. It improves at the successes of Pascal whereas including the MODULE - a device for ex urgent the kinfolk among the main elements of courses. In advert dition Modula-2 comprises low-level positive factors for platforms software ming and coroutines for concurrent programming. Programming languages are very important simply because they're used to precise principles. a few programming languages are so constrained that definite rules cannot be simply expressed. for instance languages that lac ok floating aspect mathematics are beside the point for clinical com putations. Languages equivalent to uncomplicated and Fortran that lack recur sion are wrong for textual content processing or structures programming. occasionally a programming language is useable for a undeniable appli cation however it is way from excellent. a very good instance is the trouble of writing huge courses in natural Pascal. Pascal is a terrible language for giant jobs since it lacks amenities for partitioning a software viii Preface 6< ; ~~~~er zero\ Sheet steel Tube /" zero (to Affix Eraser to Shaft) ~ hole wood Shaft A Lead center determine 1. An exploded diagram. into separate items that may be constructed independently.
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The BOOLEAN function ODD can be used with CARDINALS to determine if a given value is odd or even. However, the function ABS is obviously not allowed (or needed) with CARDINALS. The standard functions INC and DEC apply to CARDINALS and work as you would expect. Whole number constants are assumed to be INTEGERS when they are used in situations that require INTEGER values and they are assumed to be CARDINALS in situations that require CARDINAL values. Thus whole number constants are compatible with both CARDINALS and INTEGERS.
All MODULE types (local, global, and program) can import things from other MODULES. The rules for export are more involved. All items listed in the DEFINITION part of a global MODULE are automatically exported. Explicit export is limited to local MODULES. Export is not allowed in program MODULES or in the IMPLEMENTATION part of a global MODULE. Each MODULE creates a conceptual wall that divides the world into two parts, inside and outside. The outside world is known as the surrounding scope. For a local MODULE, the surrounding scope is usually another MODULE.
Most of this book focuses on the ideas that underlie Modula-2, and on practical use of the language. However this section discusses the basic elements of a Modula-2 program; the programming language equivalents of participles and punctuation. A Modula-2 program is simply a sequence of words (symbols). There are four basic symbol types in a Modula-2 program: identifiers reserved words and operators numbers strings Reserved words and punctuation symbols are part of the Modula-2 language. They are the landmarks that you use to express your program ideas.
A Guide to Modula-2 by Kaare Christian