By David Stevenson
In the summertime of 1914 Europe exploded right into a frenzy of mass violence. The battle that had worldwide repercussions, destroying 4 empires and costing thousands of lives. Even the successful nations have been scarred for a new release, and we nonetheless this day stay in the conflict's shadow. during this significant new research, released a few 90 years after the 1st global conflict started, David Stevenson re-examines the motives, direction and effect of this 'war to finish war', putting it within the context of its period and exposing its underlying dynamics. His e-book offers a wide-ranging overseas historical past, drawing on insights from the newest examine. It deals compelling solutions to the foremost questions on how this bad fight spread out: questions that stay disturbingly appropriate for our personal time
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Extra resources for 1914-1918: The History of the First World War
Continental security was now no longer enough, and Wilhelm and his advisers ostentatiously asserted Germany’s right to a voice in the Ottoman Empire (where he claimed to be the protector of the Muslims), in China (where Germany took a lease on the port of Jiaozhou), and South Africa (where Wilhelm supported the Afrikaners against British attempts to control them, sending a telegram of support to the president of the Transvaal, Paul Kruger, in 1896). Weltpolitik’ s most substantial manifestation, however, was the Navy Laws of 1898 and 1900.
Unlike Austria-Hungary, Germany was ethnically homogeneous – the Polish, Danish, and Alsatian minorities formed only about 10 per cent of the population – but national consciousness remained underdeveloped. The empire had no national anthem and even its national flag was rarely used, 40 and religious, class, and regional divisions ran deep. Furthermore, it was a federation, whose member states retained wide powers. Prussia was much the largest – it had enough votes to block constitutional change, its king was also the German Emperor, and its prime minister was usually also the imperial chancellor – yet Bavaria, Baden, Saxony, and Württemberg also kept their own kings, governments, and armies.
In the pre-1914 years, moreover, several European powers fought sizeable wars outside the continent: Britain against the South African Boers in 1899–1902, Russia against Japan in 1904–5, and Italy against the Turks in Libya in 1911–12. The Balkan states fought first Turkey and then each other in the Balkan Wars of 1912–13. Nor did the absence of fighting exclude the danger of it, as the newspaper-reading public well knew. 4 Sometimes these crises were isolated incidents; at others they occurred in rapid succession as part of a general upsurge in international tension.
1914-1918: The History of the First World War by David Stevenson